# secure+from+attack

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**Coppersmith's Attack**— describes a class of attacks on the public key cryptosystem RSA based on Coppersmith s theorem (see below). The public key in the RSA system is a tuple of integers (N,e), where N is the product of two primes p and q. The secret key is given by an …42

**3-D Secure**— is an XML based protocol designed to be an added layer of security for online credit and debit card transactions. It was developed by Visa with the intention of improving the security of Internet payments and offered to customers as the Verified… …43

**Jewish exodus from Arab lands**— The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Islamic countries. The migration started in the late 19th century, but accelerated after …44

**PNS Mehran attack**— Part of series of insurgent attacks in Pakistan Date 22–23 May 2011 Location Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan …45

**Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator**— A cryptographically secure pseudo random number generator (CSPRNG) is a pseudo random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography. Many aspects of cryptography require random numbers, for example: Key… …46

**History of Cape Colony from 1806 to 1870**— The history of Cape Colony from 1806 to 1870 spans the period of the history of Cape Colony during the Cape Frontier Wars, also called the Kaffir Wars, which lasted from 1811 to 1858. The wars were fought between the European colonists and the… …47

**History of the England cricket team from 1945**— 1940s= In 1944, an England XI played one day matches at Lord s against West Indies and Australia , England winning both. (These were not limited overs matches.) The following year, with the Second World War having finished in the European theatre …48

**Brute-force attack**— The EFF s US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days. The photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with 32 Deep Crack chips and some control chips. In… …49

**Timing attack**— In cryptography, a timing attack is a side channel attack in which the attacker attempts to compromise a cryptosystem by analyzing the time taken to execute cryptographic algorithms. The attack exploits the fact that every operation in a computer …50

**Adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack**— An adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (abbreviated as CCA2) is an interactive form of chosen ciphertext attack in which an attacker sends a number of ciphertexts to be decrypted, then uses the results of these decryptions to select subsequent… …